[W9] - Learning in quantum games

K. Lotidis, P. Mertikopoulos, and N. Bambos. Working paper.


In this paper, we introduce a class of learning dynamics for general quantum games, that we call “follow the quantum regularized leader” (FTQL), in reference to the classical “follow the regularized leader” (FTRL) template for learning in finite games. We show that the induced quantum state dynamics decompose into (i) a classical, commutative component which governs the dynamics of the system’s eigenvalues in a way analogous to the evolution of mixed strategies under FTRL; and (ii) a non-commutative component for the system’s eigenvectors which has no classical counterpart. Despite the complications that this non-classical component entails, we find that the FTQL dynamics incur no more than constant regret in all quantum games. Moreover, adjusting classical notions of stability to account for the nonlinear geometry of the state space of quantum games, we show that only pure quantum equilibria can be stable and attracting under FTQL while, as a partial converse, pure equilibria that satisfy a certain “variational stability” condition are always attracting. Finally, we show that the FTQL dynamics are Poincaré recurrent in quantum min-max games, extending in this way a very recent result for the quantum replicator dynamics.

arXiv link: https://arxiv.org/abs/2302.02333

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